The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a peer-reviewed annual report, jointly published by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe, designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional and country levels. The aim of the GHI is to trigger action to reduce hunger around the world.
The GHI is based on four component indicators:
- UNDERNOURISHMENT: the proportion of undernourished people as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population with insufficient caloric intake)
- CHILD WASTING: the proportion of children younger than age five who suffer from wasting (low weight-for-height, reflecting acute undernutrition)
- CHILD STUNTING: the proportion of children younger than age five who are stunted (low height-for-age, reflecting chronic undernutrition)
- CHILD MORTALITY: the mortality rate of children younger than age five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments)
The report says that “Global Hunger Index (GHI) show that the world as a whole—and 47 countries in particular—will fail to achieve even low hunger by 2030″.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
Sustainable Development Goal 2 – ZERO HUNGER
According to United Nations Development Programme, there are 821 million people estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2017 and over 90 million children under five are dangerously underweight.
The SDGs aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030.
The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021
After remaining nearly unchanged for the last five years, world hunger increased by 1.5 percentage points in 2020. The setback makes the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal for zero hunger and ending all forms of malnutrition more challenging.
It is reported that between 720 and 811 million people in the world faced hunger in 2020.
UN Food Systems Summit
The first-ever UN Food Systems Summit, held during the UN General Assembly in New York on September 23, set the stage for global food systems transformation to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The aim of the Summit is to deliver progress on all 17 of the SDGs through a food systems approach, leveraging the interconnectedness of food systems to global challenges such as hunger, climate change, poverty and inequality.
Violent conflict is the leading cause of food crises.2021 Global Hunger Index: Hunger and Food Systems in Conflict Settings
Conflict, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic—three of the most powerful and toxic forces driving hunger.
Hunger Remains Serious, Alarming, or Extremely Alarming in Nearly 50 Countries- GHI
In the 2021 Global Hunger Index, Somalia ranks 116th out of the 116 countries with sufficient data to calculate 2021 GHI scores. With a score of 50.8, Somalia has a level of hunger that is extremely alarming. Somalia has faced multiple crises that have increased food insecurity, including droughts, floods, desert locusts, and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic beginning in 2020 . The country has been in a state of conflict for the past 30 years
Yemen, with the second-highest 2021 GHI score at 45.1, faces an alarming level of hunger and the threat of famine in 2021. In 2021, according to the World Food Programme, more than 5 million Yemenis are on the verge of famine and tens of thousands of Yemenis already face famine-like conditions.
Central African Republic (CAR) has the third-highest 2021 GHI score of 43.0.
Hunger is at alarming levels in 5 countries—Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, and Yemen—and is provisionally categorized as alarming in 4 additional countries—Burundi, Comoros, South Sudan, and Syria. Hunger has been identified as serious in 31 countries and is provisionally categorized as serious in 6 additional countries. As per the report, India has the highest child wasting, the share of children under age five who have low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition rate worldwide. India ranks 101 in GHI.
Some important points from the report
- About 8 percent of the world population are projected to be undernourished in 2030.
- Conflict is a primary driver of hunger.
- The world is not on track to achieve the goal of Zero Hunger by 2030.