ISRO’s Shukrayaan-1 is expected to explore surface and atmostphers of Venus from December 2024. The Venus mission comes after the successful Chandrayaan, Moon Mission, and the Mangalyaan, Mars Mission.

Shukrayaan-1 will be India’s first venus mission and will study the physical aspects of venus for nearly four years. Mangalyaan-2 , Mars Orbiter Mission, of ISRO is expected to be launched in 2025.  India’s first Mars Orbiter Mission, Mangalyaan -1 was launched on 2013. India became the first nation to launch a successful Mars Mission in the first attempt.

The Soviet Union, United States, European Space Agency and Japan have conducted missions to Venus.

Mariner 2 of NASA flew by Venus on Dec. 14, 1962, becoming the world’s first successful interplanetary spacecraft.

In addition to being the first spacecraft to cruise interplanetary space, it also measured solar wind for the first time. This elusive stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun could hold keys to the formation of the universe. Mariner 2’s legacy paved the way for NASA’s Genesis spacecraft, currently on its way to gather particles of the solar wind and bring them back to Earth for research.

With its cosmic dust detector, the spacecraft also measured interplanetary dust and found that it was not as plentiful in space as scientists had expected. Mariner 2 also identified several brief solar flares and cosmic rays from outside the solar system.

The microwave and infrared radiometers allowed Mariner 2 to effectively “see” through the multitude of clouds that cover Venus’ surface. It revealed a hostile, hot environment made up mostly of carbon dioxide.

Akatsuki of Japan is the first Asian mission to the Venus.

About Venus

Venus is often called “Earth’s twin” because they’re similar in size and structure, but Venus has extreme surface heat and a dense, toxic atmosphere. If the Sun were as tall as a typical front door, Earth and Venus would each be about the size of a nickel.

Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun, orbiting at a distance of about 67 million miles (108 million kilometers). Even though Mercury is closer to the Sun, Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system. Its thick atmosphere is full of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, and it has clouds of sulfuric acid

Venus rotates very slowly on its axis – one day on Venus lasts 243 Earth days. The planet orbits the Sun faster than Earth, however, so one year on Venus takes only about 225 Earth days, making a Venusian day longer than its year!

Venus has a solid surface covered in dome-like volcanoes, rifts, and mountains, with expansive volcanic plains and vast, ridged plateaus.

The average surface of Venus is less than a billion years old, and possibly as young as 150 million years old – which is relatively young from a geological perspective. This is a major conundrum for scientists – they don’t know exactly what happened that made Venus completely resurface itself

Venus’ thick atmosphere traps heat creating a runaway greenhouse effect – making it the hottest planet in our solar system with surface temperatures hot enough to melt lead. The greenhouse effect makes Venus roughly 700°F (390°C) hotter than it would be without a greenhouse effect.

venus
Venus spins slowly in the opposite direction from most planets including Earth. A thick atmosphere traps heat in a runaway greenhouse effect, making it the hottest planet in our solar system. Venus does not have any moons.

Venus has been visited by several spacecraft: Mariner 2, Mariner 5, Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus 1, Pioneer Venus 2, and an orbiter called Magellan.

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