World Economic Forum published Global Gender Gap Report 2022. The report presents an analysis of 146 countries. As per the findings, the global gender gap has been closed by 68.1%, it will take
132 years to reach full parity(100%). India ranks 135 out of 146.
The report, now in its 16th year, benchmarks the evolution of gender-based gaps in four key dimensions namely
- Economic Participation and Opportunity,
- Educational Attainment,
- Health and Survival, and
- Political Empowerment.
Across the 146 countries covered by the 2022,index, the Health and Survival gender gap has closed by 95.8%, Educational Attainment by 94.4%, Economic Participation and Opportunity by 60.3% and Political Empowerment by 22%.
No country across the globe has yet achieved full gender parity. Iceland leads the indices with a score of 90.8%.
The report suggest following measures
1. Government and business leaders must renew the focus on affected industries, including revaluing healthcare and education where so-called essential jobs need to be treated as such. This includes adequate pay and increased professionalization to ensure proper recognition of their importance.
2. Care infrastructure investment is another area for investment. With the sector also being a job creator, there are numerous multiplier effects for economies. Complementing the focus on physical infrastructure, governments must think about care infrastructure and human capital investment as investments to enable our economies to grow.
3. A broader focus on access and the enabling environment is also critical in many parts of the world: this includes access to financial services, internet access, and expanded legal protections, ensuring that discrimination is not tolerated. Such measures are essential for developing an environment in which everyone including disadvantaged groups can thrive.
4. Leadership and role models are critical. While non-governmental organizations, education, personal services and well-being sectors tend to have above 40% women in leadership positions, industries like energy, IT, manufacturing and infrastructure tend to have under 20% of women in leadership roles. There is a similar situation in political leadership. Closing the gender gap requires a proactive approach to developing leadership pipelines in business and political organizations is necessary.
India and the report: Excerpts
In 2021, India ranked 140 out of a total 156 countries on the index. In 2022. India stands 135th , ranked better than only a few of her neighbours, such as Iran (143), Pakistan (145) and Afghanistan (146).
India’s global gender gap score has oscillated between 0.593 and 0.683 since the index was first compiled. In 2022, India scores 0.629, which is its seventh-highest score in the last 16 years. With a female population of approximately 662 million, India’s level of attainment weighs heavily on regional rankings. Recovering ground since 2021, India registers the most significant and positive change to its performance on Economic Participation and Opportunity. Labour-force participation shrunk for both men (by -9.5 percentage points) and women (-3 percentage points) since 2021. However, in every other indicator India has gained in parity relative to the weighting of other indicators on the subindex. The share of women legislators, senior officials and managers increased from 14.6% to 17.6%, and the share of women as professional and technical workers grew from 29.2% to 32.9%. The gender parity score for estimated earned income improved; while values for both men and women diminished, they declined more for men. The Educational Attainment and Health and Survival subindexes report small, insignificant changes. owever, Political Empowerment records a declining score (-0.010) due to the diminishing share of years women have served as head of state for the past 50 year.